Δωρεάν τεστ Αγγλική φιλολογία practice test 3 online

Δωρεάν τεστ Αγγλική φιλολογία practice test 3 online

Δωρεάν τεστ Αγγλική φιλολογία practice test 3 online

 

H D.Education D.Sclias προσφέρει ΔΩΡΕΑΝ θέματα Αγγλικής φιλολογίας

Τα παρακάτω θέματα και ασκήσεις, τα οποία είναι  πολύ χρήσιμα βοηθήματα για όλους
τους σπουδαστές της Αγγλικής γλώσσας και τους υποψήφιους ή φοιτητές  Αγγλικής
φιλολογίας Ιδιαίτερα για όσους θέλουν να αποκτήσουν ένα επίσημο
δίπλωμα Αγγλικών .π.χ. lower – Proficiency
 
English philology part 3A
A. Να αποδώσετε στο τετράδιό σας , στην ελληνική γλώσσα, το παρακάτω κείμενο, προσδίδοντάς του τη μορφή που θα έπρεπε να έχει, αν επρόκειτο να δημοσιευτεί σε ελληνικό έντυπο .
Nearly every schoolchild knows that seven-tenths of our planet’s surface is covered by water-seemingly an inexhaustible supply for earth’s five billion people. But the sobering fact is that 97 percent of that water is saline and unusable, leaving just 3 percent to nourish and sustain all terrestrial life. Moreover, the world’s human population continues to explode, while the supply of fresh water remains constant.
Just how that life-giving resource will be conserved and apportioned in the coming century is one of the great problems that face us.
The solutions ? Conservation of water, for one. Desalination offers some long-range hope. U.S. research laboratories are exploring an ingenious technique of using heat from the tropical oceans to convert salt water into fresh, thus saving conventional forms of energy.
Technology, however, is only a partial answer. The real solution – like the problem – is mankind itself.
William Graves
Editor, The National Geographic
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
Σχεδόν κάθε μαθητής γνωρίζει ότι τα 7/10 της επιφάνειας του πλανήτη μας καλύπτονται από νερό, φαινομενικά ένα ανεξάντλητο απόθεμα για τα 5 δισεκατομμύρια ανθρώπων της γης. Αλλά το θλιβερό γεγονός είναι ότι το 97 % αυτού του νερού είναι αλμυρό και δε μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί, επιτρέποντας μόλις το 3% να θρέψει και να συντηρήσει όλη τη ζωή στη γη. Επιπλέον , ενώ ο ανθρώπινος πληθυσμός συνεχίζει την τρομακτική του αύξηση, τα αποθέματα του γλυκού νερού παραμένουν σταθερά.
Το πώς ακριβώς αυτή η ζωοδότρα πηγή θα διαφυλαχθεί και θα κατανεμηθεί στον επόμενο αιώνα, είναι ένα από τα μεγάλα προβλήματα που μας απασχολούν.
Οι λύσεις ; Τουλάχιστον η διαφύλαξη του νερού. Η αφαλάτωση προσφέρει κάποια μακροπρόθεσμη ελπίδα. Ερευνητικά εργαστήρια στις Η.Π.Α. διερευνούν μια πρωτοπόρο τεχνική χρησιμοποιώντας τη θερμότητα των τροπικών ωκεανών για να μετατρέψουν το αλμυρό νερό σε γλυκό, εξοικονομώντας, κατ’ αυτόν τον τρόπο, συμβατικές μορφές ενέργειας.
Η τεχνολογία, όμως, είναι μόνο μια μερική λύση. Η πραγματική λύση, όπως και το πρόβλημα, είναι η ίδια η ανθρωπότητα.
Β. Να απαντήσετε στο τετράδιό σας, στα αγγλικά, στις παρακάτω ερωτήσεις :
Β1. a. Give a title to the above text.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
B1. a. «Mankind, the real solution to the water shortage problem»
b. What is the problem discussed in this text ? (no more than three lines).
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
b. The limited fresh water supplies of the earth are increasingly becoming insufficient to cover the needs of the exploding human population.
c. Several countries in the world are facing water shortages. Discuss the effects such a situation may have on, the economy and population of the country. Write a paragraph (no more than 50 words).
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
c. Drought-stricken areas, inevitably turning barren, lead to a general crop failure thus destroying the country’s agricultural production. This, all too often, has a devastating impact on the economy and, sooner or later, leads to widespread unemployment and social unrest.
B2 a. Following a long period of drought, your local authority has issued instructions to
prevent waste of water. Write down four of these instructions.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
B2. a. 1. Do not leave the tap running while brushing teeth or shaving.
2. Avoid washing your car with a hose.
3. Restrain from excessive use of water while cleaning the house.
4. Watch out for possible leaks.
b. You are planning to cross a desert. Which two of the following would you take with you ? Justify your choice.
1. a compass 2. enough water 3. blankets 4. a hat
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
b. Although the first three items all appear to be indispensable, it seems to me that enough water should be the top priority since water is scarce in any desert. Secondly, to protect myself from the freezing cold of a desert at night and also from the burning sun and possible sandstorms during the day, I would choose to carry some blankets with me.
c. Why do you think the writer considers mankind to be the real solution to the problem? Write a paragraph
of about 30 words.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
c. Because man, by nature, is a wasteful creature and squanders his resources in irrational ways. By adopting a more responsible approach to his natural environment and to living, he will, more than likely, avoid most of his self- inflicted tragedies of the past.
Γ. Να γράψετε κείμενο 120 – 150 λέξεων με θέμα :
Friends or relatives ? Which do you think play the most important role in man’s life ?
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
Early in childhood our immediate environment, the family, is the one that plays the greatest and most important role in our lives. When we grow up, however, it is friends who exert the most dominating influence on us.
As children we are totally dependent on our family and relatives. It is the family that makes us feel safe and guides us come to grips with the world around us. The absence of the family creates immense problems in a child who is left helpless in a world that is completely baffling and incomprehensible to him.
When we go to school, however, our dependence on parents and other relatives may gradually fade away and our seeking intimate friendships becomes our target. A teenager, for instance, without friends is thought to be a very introverted and insecure person.
After the teenage years, on the other hand, a boyfriend or a girlfriend takes the place of a friend and we hope that he or she will be the right companion for the rest of our life and the father or mother of our children. When it does happen, family and relatives take the first role again.
 
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English philology part 3B
Α. Να αποδώσετε, στο τετράδιό σας, στην ελληνική γλώσσα, το παρακάτω κείμενο, προσδίδοντάς του τη μορφή που θα έπρεπε να έχει, αν επρόκειτο να δημοσιευθεί σε ελληνικό έντυπο.
Early in 1991, it was reported that average temperatures on earth the year before had been the highest ever recorded. In fact, six of the seven warmest years on record occurred between 1981 and 1990. Many researchers interpret these data as evidence of a serious, continuing warming of the earth caused by pollutants in the atmosphere that trap heat close to the planet’s surface – a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect.
Other equally prominent scientists believe, however, that evidence of man – made global warming is not convincing.
Physicist James Trefil says, «I have seen a piece of the 21st century and I don’t like it very much. We are going to face serious problems, and will have to face them while the scientific evidence for the seriousness of the problems is clouded by doubt and controversy. Worse, the aspects of scientific knowledge presented to the public will appear contradictory and ambiguous, and will give us little on which to make our decisions.»
DIALOGUE, March 1991
Δίνεται : the greenhouse effect : το φαινόμενο του θερμοκηπίου
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
Στις αρχές του 1991 , επιστημονικές αρχές ανέφεραν ότι η μέση θερμοκρασία στη γη κατά το 1990 ήταν η υψηλότερη που σημειώθηκε ποτέ. Στην πραγματικότητα , έξι από τα επτά θερμότερα χρόνια στην παγκόσμια ιστορία σημειώθηκαν μεταξύ 1981 και 1990. Πολλοί ερευνητές ερμηνεύουν αυτά τα δεδομένα σαν αποδεικτικά στοιχεία του γεγονότος, ότι η γη θερμαίνεται, επικίνδυνα και συνεχώς από ρύπους στην ατμόσφαιρα, οι οποίοι παγιδεύουν τη θερμότητα, που βρίσκεται κοντά στην επιφάνεια του πλανήτη, ένα φαινόμενο που είναι γνωστό σαν το φαινόμενο του θερμοκηπίου.
Άλλοι, εξίσου επιφανείς επιστήμονες, πιστεύουν, όμως, ότι τα υπάρχοντα στοιχεία που συγκλίνουν στο γεγονός ότι η γήινη θέρμανση προκαλείται από τεχνητούς παράγοντες δεν είναι πειστικά.
Ο φυσικός Τζέιμς Τρέφιλ λέει : «Είδα ένα κομμάτι του 21ου αιώνα και δε μ’ αρέσει πολύ. Θα αντιμετωπίσουμε σοβαρά προβλήματα και θ’ αναγκαστούμε να τα αντιμετωπίσουμε, ενώ τα επιστημονικά αποδεικτικά στοιχεία, που αφορούν τη σοβαρότητα των προβλημάτων, παραμένουν ασαφή, λόγω αμφιβολίας και διαμάχης. Ακόμη χειρότερα,
η δημόσια παρουσίαση της επιστημονικής γνώσης θα εμφανιστεί αντιφατική και διφορούμενη και θα βοηθήσει ελάχιστα στη λήψη αποφάσεων.
Β. Να απαντήσετε στο τετράδιό σας, στα αγγλικά, στις παρακάτω ερωτήσεις :
B1. a. Give a title to the above text.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
B 1 a. The controversy over the greenhouse effect and its future implications.
b. What is the problem discussed in this text? (Write about 25 words).
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
b. The problem discussed in this text is whether the phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect is caused by natural or artificial factors, a controversy which divides scientists.
c. What in your opinion may be the results of the greenhouse effect on the earth and its inhabitants?
(Write about 50 words).
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
c. Among the destructive effects of the greenhouse effect on the earth will be the melting of the ice in the north and south poles, causing massive flooding all over the world. Another likely result will be the increased vaporization of water from the surface of the earth which will lead to a gradual depletion of fresh water resources and the flora and fauna. Another potential threat to people will be a high mortality rate and skin cancer due to the increased penetration of ultra-violet rays in the earth’s atmosphere.
B2. a. How would you report the information contained in the last paragraph to a friend who wishes to be informed ? (Write about 40 words)
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
B 2 a. Physicist James Trefil sounded pessimistic about the future. He predicted that we are in for some serious problems the nature of which will be questioned and disputed by certain circles. This will further aggravate the situation as a divided community will be unable to decide on the right course of action.
b. Suppose a heat wave is forecast for this summer and the government has to issue a number of instructions to the inhabitants of your area. Write down four of these instructions.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
b. INSTRUCTIONS
1. Avoid exposing yourself directly to the rays of the sun as far as possible.
2. Whenever you absolutely must go out, make sure you wear a hat and stay in shady places.
3. Minimize the consumption of alcohol and eat very light salty meals.
4. Drink plenty of cool water and take regular showers.
c. Does the writer of this passage believe that the greenhouse effect is caused by human beings? Give evidence from the passage. (Not more than 30 words).
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
c. In my opinion, no, he doesn’t. He appears to be quite impartial on this issue, reporting with objectivity what the current scientific status quo is. The best evidence for this are the sentences: «Many researchers interpret these data as …», and «Other equally prominent scientists believe, however, that …»
Γ. Να γράψετε κείμενο 120 – 150 λέξεων , με θέμα :
«Who is mainly responsible for a child’s success or failure at school? Parents or teachers?»
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
In my opinion a child’s success or failure at school depends, to a certain extent, on both parents and teachers as both roles are of crucial importance to him/her. However, a lot depends on the child’s aptitude for learning and character, too. So, it is basically the successful combination of all three factors that paves the way for success.
Teachers play a very sensitive and dominant role in a child’s life as they are seen as models of knowledge and, more often than not, inspire admiration and respect in a young pupil. Consequently, their basic ideals and opinions about the world, inevitably, exert influence and tend to shape personalities. A pupil at a tender age is bound to be affected negatively though, should the teacher fall short of his teaching duties and treatment of his/her class.
On the other hand, parents, being the first essential instructors of life who shape personalities and beliefs in their children, are the first to lay the foundations of the right conduct and attitude to learning. Their role is transformed as the child grows up, but they should always be eager to offer their help, advice, moral support and encouragement. In the opposite case, the child feels helpless, confused, insecure and potentially at the mercy of wrong guidance.
Given these factors, to fulfil his full potential, a child has to be responsible towards himself, first and foremost and utilize the combined effect of teachers and parents alike if he / she is to develop into a responsible adult.
 
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English philology part 3C
Α. Να αποδώσετε, στο τετράδιό σας, στην ελληνική γλώσσα, το παρακάτω κείμενο, προσδίδοντάς του τη μορφή που θα έπρεπε να έχει, αν επρόκειτο να δημοσιευθεί σε ελληνικό έντυπο.
June the 23rd will see the opening of a new museum in Lausanne, Switzerland, home of the International Olympic Committee.
Here, on the shore of Lake Geneva, in a 70 million dollar marble home will be a permanent exhibition of the history and culture of the Games. The museum is destined to capture the imagination of over 250,000 international visitors every year. It will be a living testimony to the spirit of the Olympic Movement founded a century ago by Baron Pierre de Coubertin.
The Olympic Games have confounded sceptics by remaining one of the most conciliatory forces in an imperfect world. This is because de Coubertin realized that sport had values in promoting young people of all races and all political and religious beliefs, to test their strengths against one another in fair play.
«Ask not for victory but for courage», says an ancient Greek maxim. «If you can endure the struggle, you bring honour to us all. Even more, you bring honour to yourself».
Time International
June 28, 1993
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
Την 23η Ιουνίου θα γίνουν τα εγκαίνια ενός νέου μουσείου στη Λωζάννη της Ελβετίας, έδρα της Διεθνούς Ολυμπιακής Επιτροπής.
Εδώ στην όχθη της Λίμνης Γενεύης, σ’ ένα μαρμάρινο κτίριο , αξίας 70 εκατομμυρίων δολλαρίων, θα στεγάζεται μια μόνιμη έκθεση της ιστορίας και του πνεύματος των Αγώνων. Το μουσείο έχει σαν κύριο στόχο να αιχμαλωτίσει τη φαντασία 250.000 και πλέον επισκεπτών απ’ όλο τον κόσμο κάθε χρόνο. Θα αποτελεί ζωντανή μαρτυρία του πνεύματος του Ολυμπιακού Κινήματος, που ιδρύθηκε πριν από έναν αιώνα, από το Βαρώνο Πιέρ ντε Κουμπερτέν.
Οι Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες έχουν φέρει σε αμηχανία τους σκεπτικιστές, παραμένοντας μια από τις πιο ισχυρές δυνάμεις συμφιλίωσης σ’ έναν κόσμο με τόσες ατέλειες. Αυτό οφείλεται στο ότι ο Κουμπερτέν αντιλήφθηκε πως ο αθλητισμός είχε αξίες, που προωθούν τους νέους όλων των φυλών και όλων των πολιτικών και θρησκευτικών πεποιθήσεων να δοκιμάζουν τις δυνάμεις τους αντιμέτωποι σ’ έναν δίκαιο αγώνα.
«Μη ζητάς τη νίκη, αλλά το θάρρος», λέει ένα αρχαίο ελληνικό απόφθεγμα. «Αν αντέξεις τον αγώνα, μας τιμάς όλους. Ακόμη περισσότερο, τιμάς τον εαυτό σου».
B. Να απαντήσετε στο τετράδιό σας, στα αγγλικά, στις παρακάτω ερωτήσεις :
B1. a. Give a title to the above text.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
B1. a. LIVING TESTIMONY TO A GREAT IDEAL
or
NEW MUSEUM HONOURS OLYMPIC SPIRIT
b. Why do you think visitors would be attracted to the new museum in Lausanne?
(Write two or three lines).
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
b. Because they would see the history and culture of the Games in an imaginative display, housed in luxurious surroundings.
c. Discuss the attitude of the ancient Greeks to victory. According to them, is victory the only thing that counts? (Write about 40 words).
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
c. To the ancient Greeks, winning was not the most important reason for entering a competition. Most important was having the courage to endure the struggle. Honour came from trying one’s best, whether or not victory was the result.
or
Apparently, not. Courage, strength and honour are the virtues we should be fighting for. Victory when won, should be shared and not just flatter the winner’s ego. Victory is not an end in itself. It is just a step to great achievements.
B2. a. How would you report to someone the ancient Greek maxim in the text (Ask… …
yourself) ? Start as follows : The ancient Greeks believed that someone …
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
B2. a. The ancient Greeks believed that someone should not ask for victory but for courage.
They stressed the importance of being able to endure the struggle which would bring honour to those around him and , above all, to himself.
b. You are representing Greece at a meeting of the International Olympic Committee.
Provide two reasons why the Olympic Games should be held permanently in Greece.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
b. Ladies and gentlemen,
There are several powerful arguments one could put forward to justify our cause that Greece should be bestowed the right to be the permanent home of the Olympic Games.
First and foremost, Greece is the birthplace of the Olympic Games and the mother of the world’s top sporting event which through the years has come to be identified with peace and nobility. I am sure you will all agree that a permanent basis makes an institution more solid.
Secondly, Greece, a symbol of peace in the Balkans and a country with superb climate, has put together an impressive range of athletic facilities along with countless other improvements in public transport and highways. Why build new complexes every four years and waste huge amounts of money when Greece can provide every modern facility and the perfect historical and cultural background for the Games?
Thank you.
c. You are a member of the organizing committee of the next celebration of the Olympic Games, to be held in Athens. Give a set of four instructions regarding the conduct (behaviour) of the spectators during the course of the Games.
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
c. STANDARDS FOR SPECTATOR CONDUCT.
In order to promote the spirit of the Olympic Games, spectators are requested to observe the following standards:
1. Please bear in mind the spirit of the Olympic Games and avoid fanaticism. Rise above all political, religious or other differences that might divide you and offer positive encouragement to all competitors.
2. Please be aware of athletes’ needs for concentration during their performance. Refrain from making disruptive noises.
3. When entering and leaving the stadium, please use entrances and exits signposted for visitors.
4. Respect the rules of hospitality. Enjoy the facilities provided and help keep them clean and comfortable for others.
Γ. Να γράψετε κείμενο 120 – 150 λέξεων, με θέμα το απόφθεγμα του Andre Malraux :
«A museum is the only place in the world that escapes death».
ΑΠΑΝΤΗΣΗ:
Not unjustly, museums have traditionally been regarded as the ideal places for retaining cultural treasures. These treasures become the object of admiration by millions of people through the years and are part of every country’s unique history. A museum constantly remains unaffected by outside world developments, preserving and safeguarding culture and history for the generations to come. People are mortal, works of art are not.
There are, of course, certain people who underestimate the role of museums and consider them an unnecessary luxury, especially when they feel that their country faces other needs, which are more vital, in their opinion. However, man is a spiritual being too, and needs to appreciate the surviving aesthetic masterpieces of the past. A visit to a museum brings us closer to exactly this aspect of the human being. It is a way of communicating with other people’s history, civilization and culture. It is an everlasting journey in time.
 
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