Αγγλικά για φοιτητές, δωρεάν θέματα Αγγλικής φιλολογίας 6

Free English philology practice test 6 online, με μετάφρασηenglish philology 6

 

H D.Education D.Sclias προσφέρει ΔΩΡΕΑΝ

Τα παρακάτω θέματα και ασκήσεις, τα οποία είναι  πολύ χρήσιμα βοηθήματα για όλους
τους σπουδαστές της Αγγλικής γλώσσας και τους υποψήφιους ή φοιτητές  Αγγλικής
φιλολογίας Ιδιαίτερα για όσους θέλουν να αποκτήσουν ένα επίσημο
δίπλωμα Αγγλικών .π.χ. lower – Proficiency
English philology part 6A
Α. Να αποδώσετε στο τετράδιο σας, στην ελληνική γλώσσα, το παρακάτω κείμενο προσδίδοντάς του τη μορφή που θα έπρεπε να έχει αν επρόκειτο να δημοσιευθεί σε ελληνικό έντυπο:
 
Last week hundreds of people flocked to Japan’s famous tourist spot, Nikko, to admire the beautiful, subtle colours of autumn. City dwellers particularly enjoy the drama of the changing seasons. The transition of summer into winter is a period of sadness for times enjoyed and gone; a time to reflect. Life today is so instant, so ephemeral that the life of trees is almost too long for those of us in the modern digitized, computerized world to imagine.
There is an old saying that an oak is 300 years growing, 300 years resting and 300 years gracefully expiring. We humans may be excited about the prospect of a new millenium but there are trees still standing that have seen millennia come and go. The world’s oldest tree, known as Eternal God, is a redwood that lives in California. Eternal God is 12,000 years old.
There is a magic in trees that touches us all. The death of a tree inspires a strange empathy. When the 13th century the Hunter’s oak tree was blown down at Windsor in England in 1863, Queen Victoria led national mourning.
The novelist John Fowles wrote that ‘trees epitomize a concept of time that has nothing to do with human clocking and calendaring’.
Time, The Weekly News Magazine, November 15, 1999
Σημείωση : Nα μην μεταφραστούν τα κύρια ονόματα Nikko και John Fowles καθώς και η λέξη redwood. Επίσης, ο τίτλος και η ημερομηνία του εντύπου να μην μεταφραστούν.
Απάντηση:
Την περασμένη βδομάδα εκατοντάδες άνθρωποι κατέκλυσαν το φημισμένο τουριστικό μέρος της Ιαπωνίας Nikko, για να θαυμάσουν τα όμορφα, διακριτικά χρώματα του φθινοπώρου. Οι κάτοικοι των πόλεων κυρίως έχουν την τύχη να ζουν το δράμα των εποχών που αλλάζουν. Το πέρασμα από το καλοκαίρι στο χειμώνα είναι μια περίοδος θλίψης για στιγμές χαράς που πέρασαν . μια περίοδος για περισυλλογή. Η ζωή σήμερα είναι τόσο στιγμιαία, τόσο εφήμερη, που η ζωή των δέντρων είναι σχεδόν υπερβολικά μεγάλη για εμάς που ζούμε σ΄ ένα μοντέρνο, ψηφιοποιημένο, αυτοματοποιημένο κόσμο, για να μπορούμε να την αντιληφθούμε.
 
Υπάρχει μια παλιά παροιμία, που λέει ότι μια βελανιδιά μεγαλώνει για 300 χρόνια, ξεκουράζεται για άλλα 300 και με αξιοπρέπεια πεθαίνει σε άλλα 300 χρόνια. Εμείς οι άνθρωποι ίσως ενθουσιαζόμαστε με την ιδέα μιας καινούργιας χιλιετίας, αλλά υπάρχουν δέντρα που ακόμη παραμένουν στη ζωή έχοντας δει χιλιετίες να έρχονται και να παρέρχονται. Το πιο παλιό δέντρο στον κόσμο, γνωστό ως Αιώνιος Θεός, είναι ένα redwood που υπάρχει στην Καλιφόρνια. Ο Αιώνιος Θεός έχει ηλικία 12.000 ετών.
 
Υπάρχει μια μαγεία στα δέντρα που μας αγγίζει όλους. Κατά έναν παράξενο τρόπο, ο θάνατος ενός δέντρου μας εμπνέει να συμπάσχουμε. Όταν η βελανιδιά του 13ου αιώνα, γνωστή ως ‘Του Κυνηγού’, ξεριζώθηκε από το φύσημα του ανέμου στο Windsor της Αγγλίας το 1863, η Βασίλισσα Βικτόρια κήρυξε εθνικό πένθος.
Ο μυθιστοριογράφος John Fowles έγραψε ότι ‘τα δέντρα αντικατοπτρίζουν /ενσαρκώνουν / αποτελούν μικρογραφία μια(ς) έννοια(ς) του χρόνου που δεν έχει καμία σχέση με το πώς οι άνθρωποι καταγράφουν το χρόνο και με το πώς χωρίζουν το χρόνο σε καθορισμένες περιόδους’.
Time, The Weekly News Magazine, November 15, 1999
Β. Να απαντήσετε στο τετράδιό σας στα αγγλικά στις παρακάτω ερωτήσεις:
Β1. α. Give a title to the above text.
Απάντηση:
B1 a. TREES, A MEASURE OF OUR INSIGNIFICANCE
b. How might a visit in the woods in October affect an old man and a city child?
Justify your answer. (Not more than 30 words).
Απάντηση:
b. The old man sees the falling leaves as happy times gone by and the end of a life cycle, while the city child sees them just as the end of summer.
c. Explain what John Fowles means by ‘trees epitomize a concept of time that has nothing to do with human clocking and calendaring’. (Not more than 50 words).
Απάντηση:
c. Man divides time into fixed periods and records it accordingly. He lives and works in his mechanized world on the assumption and perception that time is linear. Trees, however, develop independently of this human conception. Their life cycles repeat themselves in an imperceptible way that defies human comprehension.
B2 a. Based on recent discoveries in the fields of Genetics and Medicine we can assume that humans, sometime in the future, will be able to live for centuries - just like trees. What are your personal thoughts and feelings about this perspective? (Not more than 50 words).
Απάντηση:
B2 a. I wouldn't want to live so long, myself, as a life as long as that would probably render human beings incorrigible and unbearable egotists. Personally, I would like to reach old age alive and kicking as a happy individual. Besides that, if we lived longer, the world would face overpopulation and all the problems associated with it.
b. How is one’s mood affected by season? Refer to any two seasons you prefer. (Not more than 50 words).
Απάντηση:
b. For most people, spring and autumn awaken feelings of pessimism and optimism respectively as human nature is susceptible to subtle environmental changes. Personally, I find all seasons unique for their own particularities, but if I had to single out one of them, I would opt for winter because it brings me Christmas and the magic of the fireplace.
c. In some tropical countries temperatures remain high all the year round and there is no change of seasons. Would you like to live in such a country and why? (Not more than 50 words).
Απάντηση:
c. I can’t imagine myself living in a tropical country as I have grown up always expecting to witness the tangible changes of seasons and fall under their spell. In terms of climatic conditions, I feel privileged to be living in Greece and would not change that for the world.
Γ. Να γράψετε κείμενο 180-200 λέξεων με θέμα:
Some people claim that printed books in the future, even books read for enjoyment, will be replaced by electronic books (e.g. computers and CD-ROMs). Do you believe that this will happen? Write your views.
Απάντηση:
( Longer version than required for the purpose of offering more ideas on the subject)
 
Modern technology, and computers in particular, are already touching our lives deeply. We are watching something historic happen, and it will affect the world seismically. The Internet has opened new horizons in all fields of life and it is already rocking us the same way the discovery of the scientific method, the invention of printing, and the dawn of the Industrial Age did. Inevitably, printed books are expected to be phased out in the near future and replaced by electronic books. We should expect heated debates about this as every transition to something new and revolutionary faces stiff opposition and carries costs.
 
For more than 500 years, the bulk of human knowledge and information has been stored as paper documents. Paper will be with us indefinitely, but its importance as a means of finding, preserving, and distributing information is already diminishing. The real point of electronic documents is not simply that we will read them on hardware devices. Going from paper book to e-book is just the final stage of a process already well under way. This will cause dramatic repercussions. We will have to rethink not only what is meant by the term "document", but also by "author", "publisher", "office", "classroom", and "textbook".
 
When we think of a "document" we probably visualize pieces of paper with something printed on them, but that is a narrow definition. A document can be any body of information. A newspaper article is a document, but the broadest definition also includes a television show, a song, or an interactive video game. Rich electronic documents can do things no piece of paper can, and will eventually replace many printed paper ones because they will be able to help us in new ways.
 
But not for quite some time. The paper-based book, magazine, or newspaper still has a lot of advantages over its digital counterpart. To read a digital document you need a personal computer. A book is small, lightweight and inexpensive compared to the cost of a computer. For at least a decade it won't be as convenient to read a long, sequential document on a computer screen as on paper. The first digital documents to achieve widespread use will do so by offering new functionality rather than simply duplicating the older medium.
 
Some documents are so superior in digital form that the paper version is rarely used. Current print encyclopedias consist of nearly two dozen volumes, with millions of words of text and thousands of illustrations, and cost a fair amount of money. That's quite an investment, especially considering how rapidly the information gets out of date. No wonder, Microsoft Encarta, which incidentally is outselling print and other multimedia encyclopedias, comes on a single CD-ROM (which stands for Compact Disc - Read Only Memory).
 
Today, printed information is hard to locate. It's almost impossible to find all the best information - including books, news articles, and film clips - on a specific topic. It is extremely time-consuming to assemble the information you can find. Electronic documents, however, are interactive. Request a kind of information, and the document responds. The flexibility invites exploration, and the exploration is rewarded with discovery.
 
Among all the types of paper documents, narrative fiction will probably be one of the few that will not benefit from electronic organization. Almost every reference book has an index, but novels don't because there is no need to be able to look something up in a novel. Novels are linear, and will still be popular.
 
In conclusion, electronic documents will eventually replace most forms of printed ones and books in their present form will become a thing of the past. We are probably the generation that will rise, protest and condemn, but all to no avail. The irreversible and exponential expansion of computing power will sweep along individual and collective beliefs and theories and offer people a new means with which to express themselves and communicate. New technology will open undreamed-of artistic and scientific opportunities to the forthcoming generations.
 
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English philology part 6B
Α. Να αποδώσετε στο τετράδιό σας στην ελληνική γλώσσα το παρακάτω κείμενο, προσδίδοντας του τη µορφή που θα έπρεπε να έχει, αν επρόκειτο να δημοσιευθεί σε ελληνικό έντυπο:
Do the tobacco barons deserve to be stung for .2bn? Of course. No business is more malignant, killing more Than 4.5 million people annually worldwide and causing immense pain and suffering to many millions of others.
 
Does an individual smoker deserve to receive such a sum? Of course not. Neither the US nor the UK has satisfactory legal machinery yet for making the industry pay for the injuries it inflicts. But at least the US is way down the road compared to the UK. Yesterday’s decision in the US, in which a Los Angeles jury ordered Philip Morris to pay .2bn in punitive damages and .3.5m in general damages to a smoker suffering from cancer, sets a new precedent for individual legal suits.
The company was found guilty on six counts of fraud, negligence and making a defective product. The punitive damage was based on the company’s conduct, not its product – the deception, denials and lies with which it sought to obscure the cancers, heart disease and straightforward
addiction that its product caused.
Meanwhile in the UK, legal actions have been stymied by the extra barriers plaintiffs have to face: a conservative judiciary; decisions by judges rather than jurors; and an obligation to fund the defendant’s costs if they fail.
The Guardian, Friday June 8, 2001
δίνονται:
L English pound sterling, bn: billion, m: million, damages: αποζηµιώσεις, To stymie: ανακόπτω, plaintiff: ο ενάγων
Απάντηση:
Αξίζουν οι βαρόνοι της καπνοβιομηχανίας να πληρώσουν πρόστιμο 2 δις δολαρίων; Ασφαλώς. Καμία επιχείρηση δεν είναι περισσότερο θανατηφόρα  από αυτή που σκοτώνει περισσότερα από 4,5 εκατομμύρια ανθρώπων ετησίως σε όλο τον κόσμο και προκαλώντας αφόρητο πόνο και δυστυχία σε πολλά εκατομμύρια άλλων.
Αξίζει να παραλάβει ένα τέτοιο ποσό ένας μεμονωμένος καπνιστής; Ασφαλώς όχι. Ούτε οι ΗΠΑ ούτε το Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο έχουν αναπτύξει ως τώρα ικανοποιητικό νομικό καθεστώς με το οποίο να αναγκάζουν την βιομηχανία να πληρώσει για το κακό που προκαλεί. Τουλάχιστον οι ΗΠΑ όμως είναι πολύ μπροστά από το Ηνωμένο βασίλειο
σε αυτό το θέμα. Η χθεσινή δικαστική απόφαση στις ΗΠΑ με την οποία ένα σώμα ενόρκων στο Λος Άντζελες καταδίκασε την εταιρεία Φίλιπ Μόρις να πληρώσει 2 δις δολάρια για ποινική αποζημίωση  και 3,5 εκατομμύρια Αγγλικές λίρες για γενική αποζημίωση σε καπνιστή ο οποίος υποφέρει από καρκίνο, θέλει νέα δεδομένα στην
εκδίκαση μηνύσεων από μεμονωμένα άτομα. Η εταιρεία κρίθηκε ένοχη για έξι παραπτώματα εξαπάτησης, εγκληματικής ενέργειας και παραγωγής ελαττωματικού προϊόντος. Η πρόσθετη ποινή πέραν της αποζημίωσης που υπεβλήθη, βασίστηκε στην διαγωγή της εταιρείας και όχι στο προϊόν της, δηλαδή στην εξαπάτηση,
τις διαψεύσεις και τα ψέματα με τα οποία αποπειράθηκε να συγκαλύψει τις περιπτώσεις καρκίνου, καρδιακών παθήσεων και φανερής εξάρτησης που προκάλεσε το προϊόν της.
Εν τω μεταξύ στο Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο, οι νομικές αγωγές έχουν ανακοπεί λόγω του ότι οι ενάγοντες έχουν να αντιμετωπίσουν κι άλλα εμπόδια: το συντηρητικό σύστημα δικαιοσύνης, το γεγονός ότι τις αποφάσεις λαμβάνουν δικαστές και όχι σώμα ενόρκων, καθώς και την υποχρέωση να αναλάβουν τα έξοδα του
εναγόμενου σε περίπτωση που αυτός αθωωθεί.
Β. Να απαντήσετε στο τετράδιό σας στα αγγλικά στις παρακάτω ερωτήσεις:
B1. a. Give a title to the above text.
Απάντηση:
‘The need for legal action against tobacco companies.’
b. Does The Guardian take a view in its article or is it merely stating the facts, keeping equal distances from both sides? Justify your answer. (Not more than 30 words).
Απάντηση:
‘The Guardian’ clearly agrees with taking legal measures against tobacco companies. It says that ‘of course’ they have to pay, and describes them as ‘malignant’, ‘causing immense pain’, etc.
c. «… the US is way down the road compared to the UK.»
What does The Guardian mean by this sentence and how is this meaning justified in the text? (Not more than 50 words).
Απάντηση:
This sentence means that the US is ahead of the UK regarding penalties inflicted on tobacco companies.
The writer cites the example of ‘Philip Morris’ which was fined $2bn, when at the same time the legal system in UK discourages plaintiffs from claiming any compensation from tobacco companies.
B2. a. Why does a teenager start smoking today? Write at least four different reasons.
Απάντηση:
Teenagers usually want to feel like grown-ups, and therefore they imitate their habits, one of which is smoking. They also imitate each other, and so they start smoking so that they do not feel different from their friends. Others smoke simply because their parents tell them not to, and teenagers usually do the opposite of what they are told to do, or they feel that smoking relaxes them from problems.
b. Why do you think decisions taken by judges rather than jurors may differ in a case like the one mentioned in the text?
Απάντηση:
In such cases the plaintiff is only the tip of the iceberg compared to all those who suffer from smoking.
Therefore a number of people deciding on the subject would be more just than an individual in the same position. Furthermore, an individual could be more easily influenced by a powerful company than a group of people would be.
c. Based on the text, write a paragraph addressed to a friend of yours who smokes, and try to convince him/her to stop smoking. (Not more than 50 words).
Start your paragraph with Dear John or Dear Mary and end it with Yours, XYZ.
Απάντηση:
Dear John, I just read an article that may persuade you to quit smoking. Here, in the UK, it is difficult or even impossible to claim any compensation from tobacco companies. if, Gad forbid, you end up suffering from, say, cancer, the law won’t help you, so help yourself. Yours, XYZ
Γ. Να γράψετε κείµενο 180 – 200 λέξεων µε θέµα:
It is claimed that Greek students preparing for career examinations are the most hard-working people in Their community. Do you believe that their strong efforts and long-lasting studying will eventually be justified?
Απάντηση:
I believe that after good health, education is the greatest asset in life than one can have. People who choose to go onto further education or to study for vocational reasons show that they have a desire inside them to do well in life.
 
Studying, no matter what the subject, demands commitment and self-discipline. There can be no doubt that when an employer is looking for a new recruit, qualifications which are relevant to the job, are probably the number one priority.
 
Without doubt it is never a waste of a person’s time to expand their knowledge and skills. For many jobs, a certain amount of academic success is necessary in order to get a foot on the career ladder.
Anyone who works really hard and especially those who succeed in passing exams, increase the choices they will have in life. Also the feeling of self-worth one feels when one achieves something difficult is easily enough to justify all the effort that has been expended. Maybe over weeks or months or ever
over years.
 
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English philology part 6C
Α. Να αποδώσετε στο τετράδιό σας στην ελληνική γλώσσα το παρακάτω κείμενο, προσδίδοντάς του τη μορφή που θα έπρεπε να έχει, αν επρόκειτο να δημοσιευθεί σε ελληνικό έντυπο:
 
There are more rich people today than ever before. From sipping champagne to taking trips into space, they are getting plenty of pleasure – though these sad souls have worries, too, not least about the damaging effect their wealth may have on their children.
 
Without the need to work, wealthy people’s children can become demotivated and purposeless. They can find it difficult to develop an appreciation of the value of money because they have never been short of it. They can also feel crushed by the pressure to match the achievements of the creator of the wealth they are enjoying.
 
According to a recent survey of the richest 1% of Americans, around half fear that their children’s initiative and independence will be undermined by having material advantages. How can a child be taught that money is a scarce commodity when the most clinching reason for turning down a request, «We can’t afford it», does not apply?
 
Rich American parents, it seems, try to toughen their children by making them do household chores. According to the survey, 99% of the poor little dears are expected to tidy their own rooms and 85% to take out the rubbish.
 
Perhaps more significantly, 77% are expected to take part-time or summer jobs while at high school.
The Economist, June 16th-22nd, 2001 (25 points)
Απάντηση:
Σήμερα υπάρχουν περισσότεροι πλούσιοι από κάθε άλλη εποχή στο παρελθόν. Υπάρχουν άνθρωποι που αν και ρουφούν τη σαμπάνια τους παγαίνουν ταξίδια στο διάστημα, και δείχνουν ότι απολαμβάνουν τη ζωή τους, είναι και αυτοί λυπημένες ψυχές που έχουν ανησυχίες κυρίως για τις καταστροφικές συνέπειες που μπορεί να έχει αυτός ο πλούτος στα παιδιά τους.
 
Επειδή δεν υπάρχει ανάγκη να εργαστούν για να επιβιώσουν, τα παιδιά των πλουσίων κινδυνεύουν να γίνουν άνθρωποι χωρίς κίνητρα και στόχους. Ίσως δυσκολευτούν να αναπτύξουν εκτίμηση για την αξία του χρήματος, επειδή δεν τους έχει λείψει ποτέ. Ίσως ακόμη νιώθουν να πνίγονται από την πίεση να φανούν το ίδιο ικανοί με το πρόσωπο του οποίου τον πλούτο απολαμβάνουν.
 
Σύμφωνα με μια πρόσφατη δημοσκόπηση που αφορούσε το 1% των πλουσιότερων Αμερικανών, περίπου οι μισοί φοβούνται ότι οι πρωτοβουλίες και η ανεξαρτησία των παιδιών τους θα υπονομευτεί από το γεγονός ότι απολαμβάνουν υλικά πλεονεκτήματα. Πώς μπορεί ένα παιδί να μάθει ότι το χρήμα είναι ένα σπάνιο αγαθό, όταν στην προσπάθεια άρνησης για κάτι πού ζήτησε δεν ισχύει το πλέον αδιαμφισβήτητο
επιχείρημα ‘Δεν έχουμε χρήματα’;
 
Απ’ ότι φαίνεται,  οι πλούσιοι Αμερικανοί γονείς προσπαθούν να σκληραγωγήσουν τα παιδιά τους αναγκάζοντας τα το να κάνουν δουλειές του σπιτιού. Σύμφωνα με την δημοσκόπηση, το 99% των …»κακόμοιρων» αυτών παιδιών είναι υποχρεωμένα να συμμαζεύουν τα ίδια τα δωμάτια τους  και το 85% να βγάζουν έξω τα σκουπίδια. Ίσως το πιο σημαντικό, το 77% από αυτά υποχρεώνονται να βρουν εργασίες
μερικής απασχόλησης ή καλοκαιρινές δουλειές ενώ φοιτούν στο λύκειο.
Β. Να απαντήσετε στο τετράδιό σας στα αγγλικά στις παρακάτω ερωτήσεις:
B1. a. Give a title to the above text.
Απάντηση:
‘What does it really mean to be a child of rich parents?’
b. Rephrase in your own words the following sentence from the text:
«They can also feel crushed by the pressure to match the achievements of the creator of the wealth they are enjoying.»
Απάντηση:
Rich parents usually expect their children to be as able as they were themselves when they created their fortune, but children sometimes are not; the pressure of these expectations frustrates them.
c. What does the phrase «poor little dears» refer to? Comment on the way the writer uses it.
Απάντηση:
The phrase is used ironically to refer to children whose rich parents force them to do household work.
The irony lies on the fact that they are supposedly ‘toughened’ by what is in reality far from being hard work. The writer probably implies that those children are truly spoilt anyway.
B2. a. Imagine you had the money needed to take a trip into space. Write the reasons you would or you would not take this trip. (Not more than 50 words)
Απάντηση:
I would take the trip because it is definitely once-in-a-lifetime experience for all those millions of people that, are not astronauts. I would not take it, though, if the money was necessary for anything concerning my well-being or that of my family, especially as regards matters of health.
b. Apart from «the damaging effect their wealth may have on their children» what other worries do you think that rich people may have? (Not more than 50 words)
Απάντηση:
The most important thing in rich people’s mind is probably how they are going to maintain their wealth.
The more money one has the more he wishes to multiply it. Also, rich people always live with the fear of being robbed, and therefore have to secure their houses very well.
c. Unlike America, in Greece it is not common for students to take part time or summer jobs while at high school. Write the pros and cons of this practice and explain why it is not common in Greece. (Not more than 50 words).
Απάντηση:
These jobs help students to make their own money and appreciate its value. But employers may take advantage of the fact that students are teenagers and pay them less than they should. Greek parents usually pay most of their kids’ expenses; so children don’t learn to rely on such jobs.
Γ. Να γράψετε κείμενο 180 – 200 λέξεων με θέμα:
A monthly magazine has invited its young readers to contribute their views on the following issue:
«Should young people choose their field of studies according to their own inclination, or according to job prospects and advice from parents and/or professionals?»
Write a short article arguing for your own views.
Do not sign it.
Απάντηση:
I believe that when a young person is considering which field of study to follow, they need help and advice from both their parents and their teachers, but they should also trust their instincts too.
 
Generally speaking, people tend to be better at the subjects that interest them than they are at those which do not inspire them. I believe that there is no point in a student choosing a subject because his or her parents want them to do if they themselves dislike the subject or are bored by it.
Nobody can spend a sustained amount of time and effort or something that does not interest or inspire them in some way.
Occasionally, a student may have their heart set on following a particular career which forces them to study a subject which they don’t enjoy. For example, a student who would like to become a history teacher, may also need to have a language or maths qualification. In this case the student has little choice but to study something that they do not enjoy, but they still have the motivation as it is a means to an end and the eventual reward will be worth it.
 
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